Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for high-yield L-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79: 1250-1257. 2013.
S. Hasegawa, M. Suda, K. Uematsu, Y. Natsuma, K. Hiraga, T. Jojima, M. Inui and H. Yukawa.

We previously demonstrated efficient l-valine production by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation. To achieve the high productivity, a NADH/NADPH cofactor imbalance during the synthesis of l-valine was overcome by engineering NAD-preferring mutant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) and using NAD-specific leucine dehydrogenase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Lactate as a by-product was largely eliminated by disrupting the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA. Nonetheless, a few other by-products, particularly succinate, were still produced and acted to suppress the l-valine yield. Eliminating these by-products therefore was deemed key to improving the l-valine yield. By additionally disrupting the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc, succinate production was effectively suppressed, but both glucose consumption and l-valine production dropped considerably due to the severely elevated intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio. In contrast, this perturbed intracellular redox state was more than compensated for by deletion of three genes associated with NADH-producing acetate synthesis and overexpression of five glycolytic genes, including gapA, encoding NADH-inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Inserting feedback-resistant mutant acetohydroxy acid synthase and NAD-preferring mutant AHAIR in the chromosome resulted in higher l-valine yield and productivity. Deleting the alanine transaminase gene avtA suppressed alanine production. The resultant strain produced 1,280 mM l-valine at a yield of 88% mol mol of glucose(-1) after 24 h under oxygen deprivation, a vastly improved yield over our previous best.