Alternative technologies for biotechnological fuel ethanol manufacturing.
J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 82: 693-697. 2007.
A.A. Vertès, M. Inui and H. Yukawa.

The challenges of implementing biorefineries on a global scale include socioeconomic, financial, and technological constraints. In particular, the development of biorefineries is tightly linked to the continued availability of fermentation raw materials. These constraints can be relaxed by the use of diverse raw materials, while advances that confer higher flexibility would enable biotechnological plant managers to swiftly react to volatile markets. In conventional processes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows on a relatively limited range of substrates, and produces only a single product - ethanol. Given the observed maturity of the S. cerevisiae fermentation technology, alternatives to baker's yeast may be needed to tip the economic balance in favour of biotechnological ethanol. These alternative fermentation technologies may allow a greater diversity of substrates to be used to produce an individually tailored mix of ethanol and other chemicals.