Regulation of expression of cellulosomes and noncellulosomal (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes in Clostridium cellulovorans during growth on different carbon sources.
J Bacteriol. 186: 4218-4227. 2004.
S.O. Han, H-Y. Cho, H. Yukawa, M. Inui and R.H. Doi.

Cellulosomes and noncellulosomal (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes are produced by Clostridium cellulovorans to degrade plant cell walls. To understand their synergistic relationship, changes in mRNA and protein expression in cellulosomes and noncellulosomal (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes (hereafter called noncellulosomal enzymes) of cultures grown on cellobiose, cellulose, pectin, xylan, and corn fiber or mixtures thereof were examined. Cellulase expression, favored particularly by the presence of Avicel, was found with all substrates. Comparison of cellulosome and noncellulosomal enzymes showed that expression profiles were strongly affected by the carbon source. High xylanase or pectate lyase expression was observed when C. cellulovorans was grown on xylan or pectin, respectively. Mixed carbon substrates (cellulose-pectin-xylan mixture or corn fiber) induced a wider variety of enzymes than a single carbon source, such as cellobiose, pectin, or xylan. Cellulosomal proteome profiles were more affected by the carbon source than the noncellulosomal enzymes. Transcription and protein analyses revealed that cellulosomes and noncellulosomal enzymes were expressed simultaneously on mixed carbon sources, but their degree of inducibility varied when the substrate was either cellulose or cellobiose. Cellulosomes and noncellulosomal enzymes had synergistic activity on various carbon substrates. These results indicated that expression of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes is highly influenced by the available carbon source and that synergy between cellulosomes and noncellulosomal enzymes contribute to plant cell wall degradation.